Look Up Tables (LUT) are color correction tools that take the values of the color signals in the digital space and convert the display value into color. There are two kinds of LUTs that are used in digital displays, 1D LUTs (one-dimensional) and 3D (three-dimensional) LUTs. The difference lies in the way they look up data to find the correct color value. 1D LUTs rely on singular shades of red, green and blue to individually match the colors on a 1D scale. This is great when using the display for daily use, but for color professionals that need precise color replication or work with advanced video editing software, a 3D LUT is a better match. Imagine each color being three variables (RGB) and the output has a value for each color for example, an input value might be 100 with the output display values being R=88, G=26, and B=10 to reproduce that input color value.
These LUTs also traditionally come in the 8-bit or 10-bit variety with 16.77 million to 1.07 billion colors used for color reproduction, respectively. The color potential is very high but the 1D LUTs all suffer from a linear process with a greater chance for error and smaller tonal range when compared with 3D LUTs. In addition, having an eight-bit per RGB color input signal will not produce impressive multi-gradation with only a 256 scale to work with. The alternative 10-bit output is becoming more of the standard, but with Windows just recently upgrading from using an 8-bit output, it can still be lacking for color professionals. With this upgrade, users can take advantage of a higher bit LUT to get more out of their color processor, whether it utilizes a 1D or 3D LUT.
The advantage of having a higher bit count (14-bit) is even more precise tonal transitions and an increase in available color palate. That ability makes a higher bit LUT very desirable because the increase in amount of colors creates smoother color transitions, especially in darker gradient transitions. Using a high bit LUT is perfect for ideal color management use, aiming at programs that require high-performance color. A higher bit count also creates more precise gamma transitions, increasing the smoothness of gray-scale representation. This RGB blending helps users precisely match their color needs, while decreasing color error and accurately reproducing color input. With an advanced ViewSonic 12-bit color engine, color displays will output even more, utilizing a larger color palate and even if the input signal from the PC is at a lower bit rate, you will still receive better color reproduction due to the higher bit rate and advanced LUT. In addition, using an enhanced 12-bit color engine and scalar increases color accuracy and lowers the delta E number, giving an increased color palate and amazingly accurate reproduction.
Displaying color in a linear way can create errors for matching while trying to find the correct shade values for each color. 3D LUTs are much better because they produce color using a volumetric color space, which is more accurate and reduces calibration errors. 3D LUTs are needed to help create better color graduation and help express the non-linear values that exist in real life. A wider color gamut and saturation are expressed while having the ability to better match shades of colors that create better color reproduction, especially during the editing process or when users manipulate chroma, hue and brightness. Converting one color space into another color environment is done better. When converting one color space to another, 3D LUTs are more precise, reducing lost color information from the original color gamut. Intermediate color gradation is improved due to the nonlinear behavior of 3D LUTs, enhancing gray scale accuracy.
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